COVID19 : Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors and Prevention

Covid-19 | HealthInsta

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause illnesses such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In 2019, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak that originated in China.
The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may appear two to 14 days after exposure. This time after exposure and before having symptoms is called the incubation period. Common signs and symptoms can include:
  • Fever.
  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
Other symptoms can include:
  • Tiredness.
  • Aches.
  • Chills
  • Sore throat.
  • Loss of smell.
  • Loss of taste.
  • Headache.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Severe vomiting.
The severity of COVID-19 symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people may have only a few symptoms, and some people may have no symptoms at all. People who are older or who have existing chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, severe obesity, chronic kidney or liver disease, or who have compromised immune systems may be at higher risk of serious illness. This is similar to what is seen with other respiratory illnesses, such as influenza.
Some people may experience worsened symptoms, such as worsened shortness of breath and pneumonia, about a week after symptoms start.

When To See A Doctor

If you have COVID-19 symptoms or you've been in contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19, contact your doctor or clinic right away for medical advice. Tell your health care team about your symptoms and possible exposure before you go to your appointment.
If you have emergency COVID-19 signs and symptoms, seek care immediately. Emergency signs and symptoms can include:
  • Trouble breathing.
  • Persistent chest pain or pressure.
  • New confusion.
  • Blue lips or face.
If you have signs or symptoms of COVID19, contact your doctor or clinic for guidance. Let your doctor know if you have other chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease or lung disease. During the pandemic, it's important to make sure health care is available for those in greatest need.

Causes

Infection with the new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
The virus appears to spread easily among people, and more continues to be discovered over time about how it spreads. Data has shown that it spreads from person to person among those in close contact (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters). The virus spreads by respiratory droplets released when someone with the virus coughs, sneezes or talks. These droplets can be inhaled or land in the mouth or nose of a person nearby.
It can also spread if a person touches a surface with the virus on it and then touches his or her mouth, nose or eyes.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for covid-19 appear to include:
  • Recent travel from or residence in an area with ongoing community spread of COVID-19 as determined by CDC or WHO.
  • Close contact with someone who has COVID-19, such as being within 6 feet, or 2 meters, or being coughed on — which can occur when a family member or health care worker takes care of an infected person.

Complications

Although most people with COVID-19 have mild to moderate symptoms, the disease can cause severe medical complications and lead to death in some people. Older adults or people with existing chronic medical conditions are at greater risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19.

Complications can include:
  • Pneumonia in both lungs.
  • Organ failure in several organs.
  • Respiratory failure.
  • Heart problems, such as heart rhythm problems and a disease of the heart muscle that makes it hard for your heart to pump blood to the body (cardiomyopathy).
  • Acute kidney injury.
  • Additional viral and bacterial infections.

Prevention

Although there is no vaccine available to prevent COVID-19, you can take steps to reduce your risk of infection. WHO and CDC recommend following these precautions for avoiding COVID-19
  • Avoid large events and mass gatherings.
  • Avoid close contact (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters) with anyone who is sick or has symptoms.
  • Stay home as much as possible and keep distance between yourself and others (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters) if COVID-19 is spreading in your community, especially if you have a higher risk of serious illness. Keep in mind some people may have COVID-19 and spread it to others, even if they don't have symptoms or don't know they have COVID-19.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
  • Cover your face with a cloth face covering in public spaces, such as the grocery store, where it's difficult to avoid close contact with others, especially if you're in an area with ongoing community spread. Only use nonmedical cloth masks — surgical masks and N95 respirators should be reserved for health care providers.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the used tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding and other household items if you're sick.
  • Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces daily.
  • Stay home from work, school and public areas if you're sick, unless you're going to get medical care. Avoid taking public transportation if you're sick.
If you have a chronic medical condition and may have a higher risk of serious illness, check with your doctor about other ways to protect yourself.

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